In our gallery you will find paintings from almost every art epoch. An art epoch is an age that is characterized by strong similarities in various areas of art. In all the fine arts, such as painting, drawing, sculpture and architecture, there are connecting elements.
In modern times, which roughly ranged from 1450 to 1900, one of these common characteristics was the loss of faith in God. People suddenly referred to the similarity that man must have with God, and thus increasingly put man at the centre. At the same time, the natural sciences were advancing and their newly acquired knowledge also appeared in many paintings and drawings.
The most influential epochs
- Renaissance 1450 – 1600
- Baroque 1600 – 1770
- Classicism 1780 – 1840
- Realism 1850 – 1895
- Impressionism 1890 – 1920
- Surrealism 1920 – 1945
Renaissance means as much as “rebirth” and means the rebirth or rediscovery of antiquity. It originated in Italy, where educated seafarers brought a new audience to the fine arts. At the same time, radical changes took place throughout Europe, such as humanism and the end of the dark Middle Ages, marked by a strong faith. Encouraged by these new ways of thinking, the artist again referred to the clever philosophers and thinkers of antiquity. Their achievements in painting, literature, etc. were taken up again and their style was strongly oriented.
A clear structure and order are characteristic of the art and cultural epoch. In addition, the human body and natural proportions came to the fore. These aspects manifest themselves in fine architecture with mathematically defined forms as well as many nude pictures and statues of man. The best known representatives of the Renaissance are the Italian artists Leonardo da Vinci and Donatello, but also Germans like Albrecht Dürer were active at this time.
Baroque probably comes from the Portuguese word “barucca”, which means “irregular pearl”. It is still characterized by a strong admiration of ancient artists, but it has evolved somewhat and has become more dynamic overall. Many religious motifs and landscapes have been put in the foreground and the artist has detached himself from the fine and clear lines and forms of the Renaissance.
The Italian artist Caravaggio is regarded as the founder of the Baroque, other well-known representatives of the splendid epoch are the Dutch Rembrandt and Rubens. The Baroque itself is divided into the individual epochs Early Baroque, High Baroque and Rococo.
The Baroque period was followed by the Classicist period, which was the direct opposite of it. It was here that the splendour and seriousness of antiquity were invoked. However, since one did not know how colourful and colourful this time actually was, one turned again to a darker style, which renounced bright colours. In addition, shapes and outlines were sharply depicted. In architecture, too, people now oriented themselves more strongly than ever before to antiquity. Well-known buildings that still exist today and were built during this epoch are, for example, the Parliament in Vienna and the Arc de Triomphe in Paris.
In painting, the Austrian Joseph Anton Koch and the Frenchman Jacques-Louis David, among others, are regarded as representatives of classicism.
Realism is an epoch whose ideas were opposed to those of classicism and the prevailing idealism. Instead, they tried their hand at realistic paintings and sculptures, representing only what they themselves had observed with their own eyes. They wanted to depict reality as faithfully as possible and not embellish anything unnecessarily.
Realism, which began in France, was mainly represented by the French painter Gustave Courbet. His works such as the painting “The Stone Knocker” were an inspiration for countless other artists in Europe.
Impressionism comes from the Latin word for impression and that is exactly what characterizes the epoch. The idea of capturing the moment and expressing one’s impression was opposed to the idea of planning and calculating everything precisely and precisely in previous epochs. Therefore, many Impressionist paintings are simple landscapes painted with oil paints and unclean brushstrokes. In addition, light colours and the renunciation of dark tones are characteristic of the epoch.
The painters Claude Monet, Edouard Manet, Pierre-Auguste Renoir and Edgar Degas are world-famous representatives of Impressionism, which originated in France today.
Surrealism, of which the Spanish artist Salvador Dali is probably the best known representative, represents the opposite of reality as an epoch of art. Their basic idea is the representation of unconscious, absurd and unreal things, whereby the experience of new experience is the main goal.
Therefore, Surrealist works of art seldom contain logical aspects, but instead capture fantasy figures, new dimensions and twists of reality. As representatives of the art epoch, which can still be found in many media today, Max Ernst, Pablo Picasso, René Magritte, Joan Miró and Jean Cocteau should be mentioned alongside Dali.